Scarlet Macaws are a species of large, red, yellow and blue South American parrots, and are a member of the large group of Neotropical parrots called macaws. It is native to humid evergreen forests of tropical South America. The range extends from extreme south-eastern Mexico to Amazonian Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil's lowlands. In Rio 2, Felipe and his tribe are Scarlet Macaws.
Scarlet Macaws are about 81 centimeters (32 in) long, of which more than half is the pointed, graduated tail typical of all macaws, though the Scarlet Macaw has a proportionally longer tail than other large macaws. Their average weight is about 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). Their plumages are also mostly scarlet in color, with light blue rump and tail-covert feathers, yellow greater upper wings coverts, dark blue upper half primary wing flight feathers, dark blue-tipped tail feathers, dark red undersides of the wing and the tail flight feathers with metallic gold iridescence.
Bare white skin surrounds their eyes to their bill. Tiny white feathers are also present on their face patch. The upper mandible is mostly pale in color, while their lower mandies are black. Juveniles have dark eyes, while adults have light yellow eyes.
The Scarlet Macaw is frequently confused with the slightly larger Green Winged Macaw, which has more distinct red lines in the face and no yellow markings on their wings. Scarlet Macaws make very loud, high and sometimes low-pitched, throaty squawks, squeaks and screams that can be heard many miles away to call for their flocks.
A well-raised Scarlet Macaw can live up to 75 years in captivity, although a more typical lifespan is 40 to 50 years.
Taxonomy and naming
The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao Linnaeus 1758) is a member of the genus Ara (Lacepede, 1799), one of 6 genera of Central and South American macaws. Carolus Linnaeus described and named the Scarlet Macaw in his Systemae Naturae in 1758. Protonym: Psittacus macao.
Two subspecies present differing widths in their yellow wing band:
- A. macao macao South American Scarlet Macaw, the nominate subspecies
- A. macao cyanoptera (Wiedenfeld 1995) North Central American Scarlet Macaw
The Central American scarlet macaw is larger and has blue on its wings instead of green.
Status on the Scarlet Macaw
The South American range is extensive and covers the Amazon Basin; extending to Peru east of the Andes, to Bolivia and Paraguay, the habitat of Scarlet Macaws is considered to have the greatest latitudinal range for any bird in the genus Ara, as the estimated maximum territorial range covers 6,700,000 km².
Nevertheless, the Scarlet Macaw’s habitat is fragmented, and the bird is mostly confined to tiny populations scattered throughout its original range in Middle America.
Despite this, the Scarlet Macaw is generally one of the most common macaws and isn't very likely to become endangered in the near future.
Behavior and Breeding
A typical sighting is of a single bird or a flock flying above the forest canopy. Scarlet macaws usually mate for life, and there are usually two or three eggs in one clutch. The female incubates them for about five weeks, and the young leave fledge around a year later, reaching sexual maturity at five years old.
Scarlet macaws eat a variety of foods including seeds, nuts, fruits, palm fruits, leaves, flowers, and stems. Wild species may forage widely, over 100 km (62 mi) for some of the larger species such as Ara araurana (Blue & Yellow Macaw) and Ara ambigua (Great Green Macaw), in search of seasonally available foods.
Some foods eaten by macaws in certain regions in the wild are said to contain toxic or caustic substances, but can be digested safely by them. Similar to other macaws and birds in the Amazon basin, Scarlet Macaws eat clay from exposed river banks to neutralize toxins in their foods, rendering them safe for consumption..